The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved Xtoro (finafloxacin otic suspension), a new drug used to treat acute otitis externa, commonly known as swimmer’s ear. Xtoro is an eardrop approved to treat acute otitis externa caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Xtoro is the newest drug belonging to the fluoroquinolone antimicrobial drug class to be approved by the FDA. It joins several other antibacterial drug products previously approved to treat ear infections.
Taken from MDLinx summary of an article found at FDA Press Announcements
Two University of Houston College of Pharmacy researchers are examining the role of intrinsic antioxidant pathways in mitigating hypertension. Mustafa F. Lokhandwala, a professor of pharmacology, and Anees A. Banday, a research associate, are studying kidney hormonal receptors that are responsible for sodium excretion in the urine – a condition known as natriuresis – that maintains blood plasma sodium composition and regulates blood pressure. Activation of kidney dopamine receptors is an important factor that works to control sodium balance and, subsequently, maintains normal blood pressure. Oxidative stress, an independent risk factor for hypertension, could disrupt kidney dopamine receptor function. As a result, dopamine is not able to promote sodium excretion because its receptor, the place where dopamine acts to control sodium reabsorption, is not functioning properly. This leads to sodium retention and hypertension. “Any dysfunction in the renal dopamine mechanism would lead to excessive sodium reabsorption, volume expansion and ultimately hypertension,” Lokhandwala said. “There are various factors that play a role in causing an increase in blood pressure, one of which is oxidative stress. When you increase levels of reactive oxygen species – or free radicals – in the body and, specifically, in the kidney, they cause damage to the functioning of hormonal systems in such a way that you are predisposed to developing hypertension and other disorders.” To protect the kidney dopamine system against oxidative damage, the researchers are investigating how activation of intrinsic cellular antioxidant pathways can protect this hormonal system in kidneys to maintain sodium balance and, thus, normal blood pressure.
Taken from MDLinx summary of an article found at University of Houston News
A treatment pioneered at the University of Pittsburgh Center for Vaccine Research (CVR) is far more effective than traditional antibiotics at inhibiting the growth of drug–resistant bacteria, including so–called “superbugs” resistant to almost all existing antibiotics, which plague hospitals and nursing homes. The findings, announced online in the journal Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy and funded by the National Institutes of Health, provide a needed boost to the field of antibiotic development, which has been limited in the last four decades and outpaced by the rise of drug–resistant bacterial strains. On the tail end of HIV surface protein, there is a sequence of amino acids that the virus uses to “punch into” and infect cells. Dr. Montelaro and his colleagues developed a synthetic and more efficient version of this sequence – called engineered cationic antimicrobial peptides, or “eCAPs” – that can be chemically synthesized in a laboratory setting.
Taken from MDLinx summary of an article found at UPMC
The drug, Cyramza (ramucirumab), was tested on more than 1,200 people with NSCLC whose cancer worsened during or after first–line chemotherapy. The research was conducted as part of a multi–year, Phase 3 clinical trial at UCLA and other centers in 26 countries on six continents. This is the first study in a decade to demonstrate a survival benefit in people with that type of lung cancer who had already received treatments.
Cyramza is an antibody that targets the extracellular domain of VEGFR–2, an important protein in the formation of vessels that supply blood to cancer cells. Patients were given the experimental drug in combination with docetaxel, a clinically approved therapy that is considered the cornerstone of second–line treatment in advanced NSCLC, said Dr. Edward Garon, the study’s principal investigator and a researcher at the UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center. Results of the study were recently published by Garon and colleagues in The Lancet.
Taken from MDLinx summary of an article found at UCLA Health System
A new study found that elderly patients who had sleep apnea and a lack of regular deep sleep had a raised risk of brain cell damage that has been linked to dementia and Alzheimer’s disease.
Taken from DailyRx.
Omega-3 fatty acids and other FFA4 agonists inhibit growth factor signaling in human prostate cancer cells
In this study, the authors examined effects of omega–3 fatty acids (n–3 FAs) in human prostate cancer cell lines. The results indicate that activation of FFA4 initiates signaling events that can inhibit growth factor–induced signaling, providing a novel mechanism for suppression of cancer cell proliferation.
Taken from Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Find the original article here.
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A neurotoxin called acrolein found in tobacco smoke that is thought to increase pain in people with spinal cord injury has now been shown to accumulate in mice exposed to the equivalent of 12 cigarettes daily over a short time period. One implication is that if acrolein is exacerbating pain its concentration in the body could be reduced using the drug hydralazine, which has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for hypertension. The drug has been shown to be effective in reducing acrolein levels in research animals, and Shi is working to develop a low–dose version for that purpose in humans.
Taken from MDLinx summary of an article found at Purdue University Research news
First anti–CD19 drug to receive agency approval. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Blincyto (blinatumomab) to treat patients with Philadelphia chromosome–negative precursor B–cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B–cell ALL), an uncommon form of ALL. Precursor B–cell ALL is a rapidly growing type of cancer in which the bone marrow makes too many B–cell lymphoblasts, an immature type of white blood cell. Blincyto is an example of immunotherapy, a treatment that uses certain parts of a person’s immune system to fight diseases such as cancer. Blincyto is the first approved drug that engages the body’s T–cells, a type of white blood cell or lymphocyte, to destroy leukemia cells. The drug acts as a connector between a protein called CD19, which is found on the surface of most B–cell lymphoblasts, and CD3, a protein on T–cell lymphocytes. It is intended for patients whose cancer relapsed or did not respond to previous treatment.
Taken from MDLinx FDA Press Announcements
If you are one of the millions of Americans who experiences a severe allergic reaction to food, latex or an insect sting, you should know the first line of defense in combating the reaction is epinephrine. Unfortunately, not all medical personnel know how important epinephrine is in bringing an allergic reaction under control.
According to new guidelines published in the Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology the fast administration of epinephrine is essential to the treatment of a severe allergic reaction. A recent study released at the 2014 ACAAI Annual Scientific Meeting showed that not all doctors know that epinephrine needs to be used first when treating an allergic reaction. Another recent study presented at the ACAAI Annual Scientific Meeting proved that emergency supplies of epinephrine in schools save lives.
Taken from MDLinx summary of an article found at American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology News
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